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Chinese Ceramics-Material Types of Ceramic Mugs

Ceramic Mug    From:Xinxiang Ceramic Mug Manufacturers    
From Xinxiang Ceramic Mug Manufacturer,1. Red pottery is the earliest in China. The firing temperature of red pottery is about 900 degrees. According to archaeological excavation data, Peiligang culture in the Yellow River Basin, which is 8000 thousand years ago, and Yangshao culture and Dawenkou culture which are 5000 years ago, are dominated by muddy red pottery and sandy red pottery.



2. Coloured pottery is an outstanding achievement of Yangshao culture. It is painted with ochre, red, black and other colors. The art of painted pottery has a strong flavor of life and unique artistic style. It is painted on the pottery billet before the pottery is fired, and after firing, the color pattern is fixed on the surface of the pottery and is not easy to fall off. Some of them painted white pottery clothes before painting, so that before painting knot lines, first coated with a layer of white pottery clothes, so that the pattern of painting is more distinct. The patterns of painted pottery are mainly flower patterns and geometric patterns, but there are also a few animal patterns. Geometric patterns mainly include strings, meshes, serrated, triangular, square, vertical, spiral, circular, corrugated, broadband, and the moon, the sun, the Big Dipper and other patterns. Animal pattern, common fish pattern, bird pattern, frog pattern and so on. More animal lines are pig lines, dog lines and deer stripes, some Mercedes Benz, some stand. The appearance of these animal images reflects the important position of fishing and hunting in primitive social life at that time. Character patterns are rare. In 1973, a pottery bowl was produced in Datong County, Qinghai Province. There are three groups of dancers on the inner wall of the pottery bowl, five in a group. The dancers are neat, graceful and exquisite. Plant patterns, found on the pottery of Hemudu culture in Zhejiang Province in 6800 years ago, include rice and wheat grains, branches and leaves, petals, and even some of them have been generalized into geometric shapes, and mixed with geometric patterns to form patterns, forming a unique grid, which has a special interest.



3. Black pottery appeared in the period of Longshan Culture. The firing temperature of black pottery is about 1000 degrees. There are three kinds of black pottery: fine mud, mud and sand. Among them, thin-walled black pottery with fine mud has the highest production level, and it has the nickname of "black as paint, thin as paper". This kind of black pottery clay is washed, rotated, tire wall thickness is only 0.5-1 mm, and then burned to black and bright, known as "eggshell pottery", showing amazing skills, known at home and abroad. During this period, black pottery was polished mostly by plain surface, with fewer decorations, such as strings, scratches, holes and so on.



4. Grey pottery grey pottery has appeared in the early Neolithic Feiligang cultural sites. There are a certain number of grey pottery in Yangshao and Longshan cultures, especially for cooking vessels, mostly sanded grey pottery. In Xia Dynasty (early Erlitou Culture), grey pottery and sandy pottery occupied the main position.



5. White pottery is a kind of pottery with white surface, inner surface and embryo. It is made of porcelain clay or kaolin, and the firing temperature is about 1000 degrees. White pottery is basically hand-made. Later, clay bars and wheels are gradually used. White pottery appeared in the late Longshan culture, and the Shang Dynasty was at its peak. In the late Shang Dynasty, a large number of white pottery swallow-tail clothes were unearthed from Yin Ruins in Anyang, and the production was quite exquisite. By the Western Zhou Dynasty, white pottery was no longer fired because of the more firing and use of printed hard pottery and original pottery.



6. Hard pottery has a finer and harder matrix than ordinary clay or sanded pottery, and its firing temperature is higher than that of ordinary pottery. Moreover, geometric patterns are printed on the surface of the pottery, so it is collectively called "printed hard pottery". The Western Zhou Dynasty was the flourishing period of the development of printed hard pottery. According to the analysis of chemical composition, its fetal material was basically close to the original celadon. Because of the high iron content of raw materials used in printed hard pottery, the fetal color is deeper, and most of them are purple-brown, reddish-brown, yellowish-brown and gray-brown. Imprinted pottery is strong and durable, and most of them are storage vessels. The Shang Dynasty printed hard pottery was found in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. From the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Warring States Period, printed hard pottery was mainly prevalent in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and in Fujian, Taiwan, Guangdong and Guangxi in the south.



7. Glazed pottery in Han Dynasty appeared a kind of glazed pottery, also known as "lead glazed pottery", which added flux to glaze. The successful production of lead glazed pottery is an outstanding achievement of pottery making in Han Dynasty. The addition of lead in glaze can reduce the melting point of glaze, increase the brightness and smoothness of glaze, and make iron and copper colorants present beautiful green, yellow and brown colors, but green glaze is the most, green as jadeite, brilliant. The surface of lead-glazed pottery unearthed in the tomb sometimes has a silver-white luster, which is mistakenly called "silver glaze". According to archaeologists'scientific research, the reason for the formation of "silver glaze" is that the glaze has been moisturized for a long time, and the glaze surface precipitates multi-layered sediments, which produce silver-white luster under the refraction of light.
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